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Mockups rapport MaaS

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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) - Exploratory study on governance and project management in Belgium

Authors : Audrey Lebas - Nathalie Crutzen
Published in March 2021

In the framework of this new study dedicated to MaaS, Audrey Lebas - researcher at the Smart City Institute - met 8 major Belgian cities (Antwerp, Bruges, Charleroi, Ghent, Hasselt, Leuven, Liège and Namur), the Brussels Capital Region and the 4 Belgian public transport operators (STIB, SNCB, TEC, De Lijn) in order to collect their perception of the MaaS concept and its prerequisites; but also with regard to its practical deployment (roles of the different sectors, management model, distribution of roles between the levels of power). This report provides thus an information and discussion basis for public authorities and mobility stakeholders for the development, or not, of MaaS strategies and projects in Belgium in the short, medium and long term. 


RR4 mockup   Consult THe rEport  Consult the infographics

Covid-19: What impact on our municipalities? Walloon exploratory study

Authors: Jessica Clément - Giovanni Esposito - Pauline Naisse
Published in July 2020

In recent months, the various governments, in Belgium and elsewhere, have had to take action to tackle the health crisis caused by Covid-19. These measures have had an impact on the way municipalities and cities have had to adapt. At the Smart City Institute, in this complex period, the combination of the concepts of "sustainable and smart territories" and "crisis" led us to conduct empirical research in Wallonia in order to better understand the impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on the sustainable and smart transition of our territories ("Smart Cities/Territories"). Many questions arise and in particular, will this crisis slow down or, on the contrary, accelerate this transition? This report is an opportunity to evoke some initial avenues of response. Although we are not yet able to determine the full long-term effects of this situation, this research allows us to draw up an initial assessment of the situation. Our results indicate that during this complex period, Walloon municipalities saw this crisis as an opportunity to generate positive change, particularly through digital transition. The new context induced by the health crisis has created, in certain aspects, a favourable ground for the development of intelligent territories throughout Wallonia. New digital solutions that were not previously envisaged are now an integral part of the new way of working in local public administrations. While it is still too early to say that it has indeed accelerated the sustainable and smart transition of the Walloon territory, the crisis has nevertheless opened up new perspectives for our municipalities.



RR3 mockup   Consult the report

Evaluation and monitoring of Smart City projects - Exploratory study of the perceptions of Walloon municipalities

Authors: Audrey Lebas - Julio Diankenda - Nathalie Crutzen
Published in February 2020 (in French)

Over the last few years, interest in the concept of the Smart City – or the Sustainable and SmartTerritory - has continued to grow. In Wallonia, this interest is reflected through the Digital Wallonia strategy and, in particular, the Smart Region programme. Attention around the theme of monitoring and evaluation of public policies and Smart City projects has also developed, notably through the publication of various research (e.g. Giffinger, 2007) and projects (e.g. CityKeys). In Wallonia, although monitoring and evaluation is generally popular, there is still no publication that deals with monitoring and evaluation specific to Smart City projects. With this report, we would like to lay the foundations for this reflection. To do so, we formulate two questions: what perception do Walloon municipalities have of project monitoring and evaluation? What is the state of progress in terms of monitoring and evaluation of Smart City projects in Wallonia at the local level? To answer this question, we interviewed 25 Walloon municipalities. Two general conclusions emerge. On the one hand, although there is an interest in project monitoring and evaluation, there is generally no culture of evaluation within Walloon municipalities due to structural (e.g. lack of time) and contextual (e.g. political games) obstacles. On the other hand, there are currently few monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for Smart City projects set up within Walloon municipalities and, when this is the case, the project is rarely analysed as a whole (e.g. focus on final results).


RR2 mockup   Consult the rEport

The case of the bankruptcy of Urban-Farmers in The Hague - GROOF analysis

Authors: Nicolas Ancion, Guillaume Morel-Chevillet, Maria Rovira Val, Franz Schreier, Boris Solecki, Nicolas Zita, Nathalie Crutzen, M. Haissam Jijakli.
Published in November 2019

In July 2018, one of the biggest European rooftop greenhouses (RTG) went bankrupt. Located in The Hague (Netherlands), this project, named UF002 De Schilde (UF), was built in 2016 and maintained by “Urban- Farmers”, a Swiss company which already made a pilot RTG based in Basel (Switzerland) in 2013. UF’s project produced tomatoes, eggplants, peppers and leafy greens on a 1 200 m2 RTG; and fish, tilapia species (120m3), just beneath on the 6th floor of the building. The project total cost was 2,7 M€ which corresponds to 2 250€/m2. Despite the project being developed by experienced urban growers, it had to close in 2018. Why did it close so quickly? What are the main reasons for this bankruptcy? Which mistakes have been made? What could be learned? Thanks to the documents available online and interviews that we could hold, we are going to see that the strategy, the internal disagreement, and the production techniques challenges, are all linked to the failure of this project. Indeed, the business model of this company, which looked very appealing on paper, didn’t reach economic viability.


RR1 mockup  Consult THe rEport

Performance measurement in Smart Cities: An introductory report

Authors: Audrey Lebas - Nathalie Crutzen
Published in November 2019

Among the different debates surrounding Smart Cities, the topic of performance measurement has gained momentum. Several authors (e.g. Giffinger, 2007) and projects (e.g. CityKeys) have provided frameworks for municipalities to measure and monitor their Smart City performance. While these frameworks are useful and interesting, they often measure the performance of a city with an outside-in approach. This implies that performance is often measured based on pre-defined sets of indicators, which is an asset for comparing territories. In this report, we focus on a more managerial approach – also called an inside-out approach. We aim to guide municipalities to define their own performance measurement system that will allow them to improve their objectives and processes. Hence, we hereby propose an integrative model that is directly derived from the territory’s specificities. The model is constructed using an inductive approach built upon the existing literature on business performance management, public performance management and Smart City performance measurement & management. Note that, given the complexity of performance measurement, this report is only an introductory document. Therefore, the content is not exhaustive and will be completed in future publications from the Smart City Institute.



Mockup rapport analyse quali 2015  Consult the report

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Smart Cities in Belgium: Qualitative analysis of 11 projects

Authors: Jonathan Desdemoustier - Nathalie Crutzen
Published in November 2015

Many Belgian cities, both in Wallonia and Flanders, are part of a movement to transform their territory into a smart and sustainable city. Some cities have committed themselves to a global “Smart City” vision and strategy, participate in European projects, but also develop and support the realisation of concrete solutions and initiatives in their territory. This report proposes an analysis of 11 Belgian projects considered as sustainable and smart.
 Six main areas/subjects constitute the body of study of these initiatives:
1- The actors' dynamics around the project
2 - Project development and management 

3 - The use of technology 

4 - The sustainability of the project

5 - Financing the project 

6 - The legal status of the project

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